La Guerre sainte
1095 : l'appel du pape Urbain II à Clermont ouvre une ère nouvelle, celle des croisades. Pendant plusieurs siècles, elle va opposer la chrétienté au monde musulman pour la possession de Jérusalem et des lieux saints. En s'adressant directement aux chrétiens d'Occident pour les inciter à aller délivrer le Saint-Sépulcre, aux mains des musulmans depuis 738, le pape innove : il pose les fondements d'une véritable institution dont ses successeurs vont peu à peu fixer les rites, les modalités et les privilèges. Pourtant, la croisade ne naît pas de rien. Elle a une préhistoire que ce livre cherche à éclairer, explorant principalement les Xe et XIe siècles que l'on dit parfois obscurs. La croisade apparaît alors comme l'aboutissement d'un lent processus qui voit s'accomplir une véritable révolution doctrinale : elle conduit l'Eglise de la non-violence professée aux origines à l'usage sacralisé et méritoire des armes. Dès lors, une nouvelle lecture de la croisade se dessine, qui met l'accent sur une dimension fondamentale aujourd'hui trop négligée, celle de la guerre sainte, rejoignant certains aspects du jihad.
La Papaut et les croisades The Papacy and the Crusades
This volume brings together a selection of the papers on the theme of the Papacy and the Crusades, delivered at the 7th Congress of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. After the introduction by Michel Balard, the first papers examine aspects of crusader terminology. The next section deals with events and perceptions in the West, including papers on the crusades against the Albigensians and Frederick II, and on the situation in the Iberian peninsula. There follow studies on relations between crusaders and the local populations in the Byzantine world after 1204 and Frankish Greece, and in Cilician Armenia, while a final pair looks at papal interventions in Poland and Scandinavia.
La papaut et les croisades
This volume brings together a selection of the papers on the theme of the Papacy and the Crusades, delivered at the 7th Congress of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. The first papers examine aspects of crusader terminology. The next section deals with events and perceptions in the West, including papers on the crusades against the Albigensians and Frederick II, and on the situation in the Iberian Peninsula. There follow studies on relations between crusaders and the local populations in the Byzantine world after 1204 and Frankish Greece, and in Cilician Armenia, while a final pair looks at papal interventions in Poland and Scandinavia.
Christian Muslim Relations A Bibliographical History Volume 3 1050 1200
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History 3 (CMR3) is a history of all the works on Christian-Muslim relations from 1050 to 1200. It comprises introductory essays and over one hundred entries containing descriptions, assessments and comprehensive bibliographical details of individual works.
The Crusader World
The Crusader World is a multidisciplinary survey of the current state of research in the field of crusader studies, an area of study which has become increasingly popular in recent years. In this volume Adrian Boas draws together an impressive range of academics, including work from renowned scholars as well as a number of though-provoking pieces from emerging researchers, in order to provide broad coverage of the major aspects of the period. This authoritative work will play an important role in the future direction of crusading studies. This volume enriches present knowledge of the crusades, addressing such wide-ranging subjects as: intelligence and espionage, gender issues, religious celebrations in crusader Jerusalem, political struggles in crusader Antioch, the archaeological study of battle sites and fortifications, diseases suffered by the crusaders, crusading in northern Europe and Spain and the impact of Crusader art. The relationship between Crusaders and Muslims, two distinct and in many way opposing cultures, is also examined in depth, including a discussion of how the Franks perceived their enemies. Arranged into eight thematic sections, The Crusader World considers many central issues as well as a large number of less familiar topics of the crusades, crusader society, history and culture. With over 100 photographs, line drawings and maps, this impressive collection of essays is a key resource for students and scholars alike.
Crusading and the Crusader States
Crusading and the Crusader States explores how the idea of holy war emerged from the troubled society of the eleventh century, and why Jerusalem and the Holy Land were so important to Europeans. It follows the progress of the major crusading expeditions, offering insights into initial success and subsequent failure, charts the development of new attitudes towards Islam and its followers, and shows the effects of the Crusades on society and culture in the Near East. Providing analysis and discussion of this vital period of medieval history, Andrew Jotischky discusses key questions such as how crusading evolved in theory and practice, how crusading expeditions were planned and carried out, why they were considered such an essential part of medieval society, and why their popularity endured despite military failures. This new edition takes into account the wealth of rich and varied recent research to show why crusading should be seen as central to the European experience in the Middle Ages. It engages with key historiographical debates of the past decade, including how Crusades were formed, the political culture and social networks of crusading, and the effects of crusading on western religious and aristocratic culture. It now extends into the fifteenth century to discuss the lasting ramifications of the Crusades, and illustrate their legacy into the early modern period. It is essential reading for all students of the Crusades and medieval history.
Holy War Martyrdom and Terror
Holy War, Martyrdom, and Terror examines the ways that Christian theology has shaped centuries of conflict from the Jewish-Roman War of late antiquity through the First Crusade, the French Revolution, and up to the Iraq War. By isolating one factor among the many forces that converge in war—the essential tenets of Christian theology—Philippe Buc locates continuities in major episodes of violence perpetrated over the course of two millennia. Even in secularized or explicitly non-Christian societies, such as the Soviet Union of the Stalinist purges, social and political projects are tied to religious violence, and religious conceptual structures have influenced the ways violence is imagined, inhibited, perceived, and perpetrated. The patterns that emerge from this sweeping history upend commonplace assumptions about historical violence, while contextualizing and explaining some of its peculiarities. Buc addresses the culturally sanctioned logic that might lead a sane person to kill or die on principle, traces the circuitous reasoning that permits contradictory political actions, such as coercing freedom or pardoning war atrocities, and locates religious faith at the backbone of nationalist conflict. He reflects on the contemporary American ideology of war—one that wages violence in the name of abstract notions such as liberty and world peace and that he reveals to be deeply rooted in biblical notions. A work of extraordinary breadth, Holy War, Martyrdom, and Terror connects the ancient past to the troubled present, showing how religious ideals of sacrifice and purification made violence meaningful throughout history.
Sanctifying the Name of God
How are martyrs made, and how do the memories of martyrs express, nourish, and mold the ideals of the community? Sanctifying the Name of God wrestles with these questions against the background of the massacres of Jews in the Rhineland during the outbreak of the First Crusade. Marking the first extensive wave of anti-Jewish violence in medieval Christian Europe, these "Persecutions of 1096" exerted a profound influence on the course of European Jewish history. When the crusaders demanded that Jews choose between Christianity and death, many opted for baptism. Many others, however, chose to die as Jews rather than to live as Christians, and of these, many actually inflicted death upon themselves and their loved ones. Stories of their self-sacrifice ushered the Jewish ideal of martyrdom—kiddush ha-Shem, the sanctification of God's holy name—into a new phase, conditioning the collective memory and mindset of Ashkenazic Jewry for centuries to come, during the Holocaust, and even today. The Jewish survivors of 1096 memorialized the victims as martyrs as they rebuilt their communities during the decades following the Crusade. Three twelfth-century Hebrew chronicles of the persecutions preserve their memories of martyrdom and self-sacrifice, tales fraught with symbolic meaning that constitute one of the earliest Jewish attempts at local, contemporary historiography. Reading and analyzing these stories through the prism of Jewish and Christian religious and literary traditions, Jeremy Cohen shows how these persecution chronicles reveal much more about the storytellers, the martyrologists, than about the martyrs themselves. While they extol the glorious heroism of the martyrs, they also air the doubts, guilt, and conflicts of those who, by submitting temporarily to the Christian crusaders, survived.
Palgrave Advances in the Crusades
The Crusades were a startling and spectacular phenomenon that exerted a powerful influence on European development over a period of many centuries. Much recent writing has been devoted to explaining how the crusades began and what they achieved. This volume is intended as an introductory guide and analysis of how different aspects of crusading studies have developed. Rather than giving an account of events, each chapter offers an interpretative and historiographical study. It is aimed both at postgraduates and at professional academics.
Dominion of God
Brett Whalen explores the compelling belief that Christendom would spread to every corner of the earth before the end of time. During the High Middle Ages - an era of crusade, mission, and European expansion - ;the Western followers of Rome imagined the future conversion of Jews, Muslims, pagans, and Eastern Christians into one fold of God's people, assembled under the authority of the Roman Church.