Environmental performance reviews
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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews
During its 20 years as an OECD member country, Korea has shared many good practices with its peers. It has championed green growth at the OECD, as well as establishing the Global Green Growth Institute and hosting the Green Climate Fund. This third OECD Environmental Performance Review of Korea assesses the country's progress in achieving its environmental policy objectives since the last review, carried out in 2006. Korea has been one of the fastest growing OECD economies over the past decade, driven by a large export-oriented manufacturing sector. However, growth has come with high pollution and resource consumption. With increasing energy demand, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have risen significantly and air pollution remains a major healthconcern. Despite impressive improvement in wastewater treatment, diffuse pollution increasingly affects scarce water resources. Urbanisation and industrialisation are also putting considerable pressure on biodiversity. Environmental challenges are exacerbated by Korea's population density, the highest in the OECD. Access to environmental goods and services and exposure to environmental risk vary significantly by region. To tackle these challenges, Korea has invested considerable effort in improving environmental management, for example by introducing strategic environmental assessment, reforming the environmental permitting system and strengthening air and water quality standards. Korea introduced the world's second largest emission trading scheme and remains one of the most innovative countries in climate change mitigation technology. Yet, coal is set to remain a core part of the energy mix, and road transport continues to be supported as the dominant form of mobility. Energy prices and taxes do not reflect the environmental costs of energy production and use. The Review emphasises that Korea needs to align its energy and climate policies to reduce GHG emissions by 37% below business-as-usual levels by 2030, as pledged at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris.
The Politics of Environmental Performance
As the world faces the prospect of climate change, nuclear disasters, and water scarcity, it is clear that environmental degradation is an increasingly serious challenge with economic and social consequences. In this book, Detlef Jahn analyzes political processes in a macro-comparative study in order to estimate the role of politics in the field of environmental performance in 21 OECD countries. His model demonstrates various styles of politics used to combat environmental degradation. He finds that economic and environmental performance are still closely linked, and that moving towards a service society does not by itself solve the environmental challenge. The close relationship of these areas was made strikingly clear in the economic crisis of the new millennium. He argues that economic globalization fosters environmental deterioration, and undermines efforts in domestic politics and international coordination to improve the environmental record.
Toward Next Generation Performance Budgeting
Toward Next-Generation Performance Budgeting: Lessons from the Experiences of Seven Reforming Countries analyzes the difficulties that national governments have had in linking measurement of performance and results to the annual budget process. The book is based on intensive reviews of four advanced countries that were early reformers and three pioneers in Central and Eastern Europe. In addition to looking at their current systems, Toward Next-Generation Performance Budgeting looks at how their approaches have evolved over time. This book attempts to fill a gap between survey-based self-assessments and best-practice guides. It was compiled in response to the concerns of budget departments in countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, many of which are committed to adopting some form of performance-based budgeting and are seeking to learn from the experiences of previous reformers what the practical challenges are and how they can adapt best-practice approaches to a messy reality. The case studies demonstrate a general pattern of disappointment with the results of performance budgeting, balanced by a strong belief in the underlying logic, which has resulted in repeated efforts to modify approaches to tighten the links between budgeting and performance. These efforts have resulted in significant variation in how countries have implemented performance budgeting and in the benefits they have derived. These variations offer guidance for models of next-generation performance budgeting, avoiding classic pitfalls, and incorporating modifications introduced by those who have used it longest and found it useful.